Lived1770 – 1827  
Mostly inVienna, Bonn
Best known forpretty much everything he wrote
Similar toHaydn, Mozart, Schubert, Czerny

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Nine symphonies, 16 string quartets, 32 piano sonatas – and only one opera. And just look at all those projects that came to nothing: Vesta’s Fire, abandoned after a single scene; Macbeth, similarly discarded and its music reworked (apparently) in the slow movement of the GhostPiano Trio; Goethe’s Faust Part I,a wish expressed and nothing more. The statistics surely say it all: Beethoven was an instrumental composer first and foremost. Vocal writing – and especially operatic vocal writing – just didn’t...

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